Thursday, May 14, 2020
Different social classes can be distinguished by inequalities in such areas as power, authority, and wealth, working and living conditions, life-styles, life span, education, religion, and culture. The 19th century was primarily divided into four distinct social groups (or classes): Ã¢â¬Å"upper classÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"middle classÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"working classÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"under classÃ¢â¬ . Beneath the working class of industrial workers, submerged the Ã¢â¬Å"under classÃ¢â¬ . They were often referred to as the Ã¢â¬Å"sunken peopleÃ¢â¬ -- those of which lived in poverty. Each class included a wide range of occupations of varying status and income; there was a large gap between the classes. Early in the 19th century the labels Ã¢â¬Å"working classesÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"middle classesÃ¢â¬ were already coming into frequentÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The citizens apart of the working class had to endure 10+ hour working days. Some children were even forced to start working a s young as the age of three. Children and adults of all ages worked in the factories and had very little pay for the work they had done. Between 12s and 15s was a normal wage for the laborers. One capable of a normal human life span could not be afforded on any income fewer than 30s a week. They could barely afford housing and food. Some large families of about eight people slept in one room, sometimes going to bed without food. Sanitation was also a big problem in factories. There was no personal hygiene and disease was the number one killer. Seven out of eight people would die of disease and the other one would die of natural causes. As new factories began springing up all over London, working conditions slowly deteriorated until women and children were working twelve-hour days every day. Poor, incoherent laws inhibited the poor because their employer could treat them however they wanted and make them work for pennies. In the factories, whole families worked in joint efforts to ma ke it out of poverty, but still with no avail. A constant risk of accidents, a result from uncovered machines, incapacitated people and caused them to be very prone to disease and sometimes put them out of work. When someone lost a body part, it was a sure sign that they would never be anything more thanShow MoreRelatedSocial Inequalities By Jonathan Kozal Essay1570 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessimultaneously believe that schools are places where social inequalities should be equalized, where the advantages or disadvantages that children experience in their homes and families should not determine what happens to them in school-in essence, that school is a place where children should have equal chances to make the most of their potential.Ã¢â¬ (Inequality) The 1991 article Savage Inequalities written by Jonathan Kozal highlights the fact that every person is entitled to the right to receiveRead MoreSocial Inequality : Inequality And Inequality3119 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pages Core Assessment Paper Carrie Bailey Park University Social Inequality in My Life Social inequality is described by the presence of unequal opportunities and rewards for various social positions or statuses inside a society or group. It contains organized and repetitive examples of unequal distributions of goods, riches, opportunities, prizes, and disciplines. Racism, for instance, is comprehended to be a wonder whereby access to rights and resources is unreasonably disseminatedRead MoreInequality : Global And Social Inequality1330 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesInequality has been shown throughout American history and has affected various countries including the United States. The two forms of inequality this paper will address are global and social inequality. Social inequality refers to the distribution of resources based on socially defined characteristics, while global inequality is the systematic differences in wealth and power between countries. Children living in poverty donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the same opportunities as those who live in a higher income countyRead M ore Social inequality in 1820s Essay1385 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSocial inequality in 1820s Social equality has been a goal of America since its very beginning. However, it was only an intention to be socially equal, but not a goal. Social equality or the fact that all men were created equal only applied to the white man. There was no intention in meaning that the blacks and Indians or even the women were equal. In the eyes of the delegates, and the common white majority, blacks, indians, and women were not an issue. To them, it was apparent that blacks wereRead MoreSocial Inequality And Gender Inequality Essay2091 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesSocial inequality is defined as the set of unequal opportunities for different social classes or statuses for various individuals within a group or society. It usually refers to people of distinct genders, ages, and ethnicities. Many AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s have experienced some type of social inequality throughout their lifetime. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s gaping inequality is seen everywhere from education to the workforce. Society tends to oversee inequ ality based on race, gender, and other social characteristics . AmericansRead MoreSocial Inequality And Gender Inequality Essay2163 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesn AmericaSocial inequality is defined as the set of unequal for different social classes or statuses for various individuals within a group or society. It usually refers to people of distinct genders, ages and ethnicities. Many AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s have experienced some type of social inequality throughout their lifetime. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s gaping inequality is seen everywhere from education to the workforce. Society tends to oversee inequality based on race, gender, and other social characteristics believe that racialRead MoreSocial Inequality1778 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSocial inequalityÃ refers to a situation in which individual groups in a society do not have equalÃ social status,Ã social class, andÃ social circle. Areas of social inequality includeÃ voting rights,freedom of speechÃ and assembly, the extent ofÃ property rightsÃ and access toÃ education,Ã health care, qualityÃ housing,Ã traveling,Ã transportation,Ã vacationingÃ and other social goods and services. Apart from that it can also be seen in the quality of family and neighbourhood life, occupation,Ã job satisfactionRead MoreEssay on Social Inequality Between Men and Women1102 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThere are many forms of social inequality that can be analyzed in the study of anthropology. One of these is the social inequality between men and women. Though gender is studied relatively commonly in the field of anthropology, it is not often looked at through the lens of social inequalit y. The observations of Sarah Lamb and Deborah Tannen in their articles, The Politics of Dirt and Gender: Body Techniques in Bengali India, and Whos Interrupting?: Issues of Dominance and Control, respectivelyRead MoreSocial Inequality : A Part Of Sports1080 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThesis: Social inequality is a part of many issues other than sports, but it is a part of sports to do several issues such as gender roles, salary and stereotypes. The Significance: The significance of this topic of inequality in sports is that it does not just occur in sports. It happens all around us, you see social inequality happening at work places, schools, restaurants and many other places. Many people donÃ¢â¬â¢t see if because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what it is. Population: Many people think it onlyRead MoreThe Social Issue Of The Income Inequality Essay1433 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe social issue of the income inequality In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern world, as the technology has developed better daily, whereas the gap referred to income inequality between rich and poor still has not solved but has widened. Income inequality simply refers to the extent to which income is unevenly and unreasonably distributed in manner among a population. The inequality brings economic instability, but sadly most people are not relatively concerned about the wide inequality between classes. Ever since
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Essays on Initial Public Offering for the Superior Living Essay The paper Ã¢â¬Å"Initial Public Offering for the Superior Living" is a forceful example of an essay on finance accounting. This paper will specifically discuss how the debt financing strategy would impact Superior LivingÃ¢â¬â¢s capital structure, balance sheet, and return on equity. It will also analyze the trade-offs between incremental IPO proceeds and debt financing.The level of debts can have a great influence on an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s capital structure. In addition, there is a range of elements including the degree of business uncertainty, tax exposure, management, financial background, market status, and growth rate that could impact a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s capital structure. A firmÃ¢â¬â¢s level of business certainty can be linked to its market activities. When a company has a higher degree of business uncertainty, it may choose to maintain a capital structure with a lower debt ratio. A conservative management approach cannot support the idea of huge debt financing. Therefore, t he organization should practice an aggressive management approach to use more debts and thereby quickly increase its earnings per share. Referring to Solocha and Bundt, when the company uses more debts to improve its profits, this practice would lead to a rise in the interest expenses. Ã Hence the company may be forced to raise more revenues to cover these additional expenses. From the case scenario, it is evident that Superior Living has a good market status and therefore the organization can easily raise funds to cover the additional interest expenses. In addition, the company has a greater level of financial flexibility and hence it would not face any difficulty in raising finance for repaying the debt.The tradeoffs between IPO and debt financing will last as long as the IPO does not exceed the initial cost of the debt. The company needs to depend more on debt financing at the time of initial public offering because the public money collected at this stage may not be adequate t o meet day to day business needs.Ã However, the incremental IPO would progressively exceed the initial cost of debt. The amount raised from incremental public offering can be used to repay the debts once the amount from public offerings exceeded the initial costs of the debt. The management may also choose to retain its debt levels even though it acquired a good public stock level.Ã Ã Similarly, the debt financing strategy will notably impact Superior LivingÃ¢â¬â¢s balance sheet. To illustrate, when the company uses debt to finance its expansion operations, the number of debts will be directly added to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s liability side of the balance sheet. In the words of Galindo, Panizza, and Schiantarelli, a high level of debt in the balance sheet would give a negative motivation to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stakeholders. In addition, a high level of balance sheet debt may prevent the company from obtaining credit facilities from external lenders. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Duff states that the utilization of more debts may increase or decrease the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s return on equity. If Superior Living can improve its profitability using more debts, this condition would assist the firm to pay more dividends and hence the return on equity will be increased. In contrast, if the company fails to utilize its debts efficiently, it would probably suffer losses and this situation, in turn, may lead to a decline in return on equity.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss About The Controversial Issues Aboriginals Australia? Answer: Introduction: In Australia, after the European invasion, the aboriginals had lost their rights on their property and the government had made certain attempts to grab the properties of aboriginals by way of terra nullius. The doctrine of terra nullius treats the properties as nobodys land and therefore, hurts the traditional cultures of the aboriginals. The Mabo case has, for the first time established the rights of the aboriginals and introduced the concept of native land title and therefore, become a remarkable in the Australian history. Discussion: Mabo v Queensland No. 2 (1992) HCA 23 is one of the remarkable cases in the history of Australia. The term native land title was first time established through this case. The High Court of Australia has observed that the validity of the maxim terra nullius should be limited in certain circumstances. Terra nullius is a Latin term that denotes the land of nobody. It is a principle of international law that identifies certain lands as state territory. In the Gove Land Rights case, it was held that before European invasion, management was deserted land and therefore, the concept of native title does not exist. This decision was quashed in Mabo case where the High Court of Australia was pleased to decide that that land will not be come under the parlance of terra nullius where the inhabitants are resided. The inhabitants can be uncivilised in nature. In 1982, Eddie Mabo and two others had rejected the proposal of land grants for aboriginals made by the Queensland government. The land titl e of the aboriginals was established by the Mabo case (Rossiter and Wood 2016). The main objective lay before the High Court was to decide whether the indigenous people had a right to claim title over the land or not. While deciding the fate of the case, the High Court of Australia found that the principle of terra nullius has, in certain circumstances, violated the provinces of Racial Discrimination Act 1975. The main prayer of Mabo case was to consider the rights of the Meriam people over their lands as occupier and possessor. The Judges of Queensland Supreme Court were of the view that the concept of Native Tile is existed in the common law and the parameter of the title is to be determined on the basis of nature and connection of the occupier to the land. The most important part of this case is that the court was pleased to decide that aboriginals are the ancient inhabitants of Australia and their rights over the land should be existed at all circumstances under the new sovereig n legal system (Drake and Gaudry 2016). Therefore, the doctrine of terra nullius was overturned by the Mabo decision. The case has certain impacts on the Australian legal system. The most significant part of the case is that the doctrine of terra nullius has been overturned by this case. The doctrine of terra nullius was applied to recognise the land of the aboriginals as nobodys land and the government was denied to accept the title of the aboriginals over the land (Yiftachel 2017). It has been observed that the government of Australia had acquired all the lands of the aboriginals without any agreement and this tendency had hurt the existence and rights of the aboriginals over their property. Mabo case was succeed to establish the legal right of the indigenous people over the land and according to the High Court of Australia, the inappropriate application of terra nullius has infringed the provisions of Racial Discrimination Act 1975. The then legal system of Australia was being challenged by the Mabo case on the basis of two aspects such as the aboriginals had no idea of land ownership and all the previous legal provisions of Australia should be abolished (Boer and Gruber 2017). The main aim of this case is to consider the native title of the aboriginals and establish the fact that aboriginals have rights and title over the properties over the land through their ancient customs. This case has helped to enact Native Title Act 1993 and clarify the legal stands of the aboriginals to make a claim under native title. The Mabo case has helped to strengthen the base of custom law of the aboriginals. The court has decided that the aboriginals have rights over the property according to the legal provision of the native land and terra nullius will not be applied on the land where there are inhabitants existed. The judgment of the case had inserted the doctrine of native title and the rights of the aboriginals were established for the overall development of Australia. Therefore, the settled status of Australia was reviewed by this case. Further, all the discriminatory provisions under the Australian legal system for the aboriginal rights had been abolished and the States power to snuff out native title rights had been asserted (Short 2016). There are certain shortfalls observed regarding the current legal system to native title. The Native Title Act was enacted in 1993 to establish the legal position of the aboriginals over their property. The Act was based on the case of Mabo and plays an important role regarding the rights of the aboriginals (Mannan 2015). Certain strategies were implemented in this Act to recognise the title of the aboriginals. According to Tom Calma, former social justice commissioner, the concept of native title is at the foundation label of the ladder of Australian Property Rights. The Native Title Act has recognised the rights of the aboriginals (Gruber 2017). Before the enactment of Native Title Act, the aboriginals could not marketing any claim over their properties and the government of Australia had taken most of their lands without any notice in the form of terra nullius. However, the doctrine of terra nullius has been abolished after the enactment of Native Title Act 1993, though there are certain loopholes present under the Act. This Act facilitates the process of negotiation to resolve the land dispute of the aboriginals. However, the real situation has revealed that most of the disputes are resolved through court cases and therefore a need to amend the provisions of the Act has been cropped up. The main problem is that under the Native Title Act, the applicant must prove the ongoing title over that proposed land. This is quite tough to prove the ongoing title due to urbanisation. Therefore, a good evidentiary level is required. The current legal system of Australia is not provided any effective rules so that the aboriginals can claim their title over the properties easily. The present legislations of Australia are quite biased regarding the rights of the indigenous (Kramer 2016). Further, the legal process is bit lengthy and therefore, the aboriginals have to face lots of problems due to this. After the enactment of the Native Title Act 1993, more than 1250 cases w ere lodged before the court up to 2011, but only 121 cases were resolved. Therefore, laxity within the legal system has been observed. The Native Title Act has enabled the aboriginals to make a claim over the property. It is significant in nature as it plays an exceptional rule to the doctrine of terra nullius. The Act attempts to reform the then Australian legal system regarding the rights of the aboriginals over the properties. However, there are certain uncertainties cropped up regarding the future of the Act. According to Glen Kelly, the provision of Native Title Act is implemented for the purpose of controlling the traditional rules of the aboriginals and he had regarded the Act as white fellow legal construct. On the other hand, this Act enables the aboriginals to make claim for certain vacant parts of the Australia only and the applicant must have to prove the continuity over the land. This provision has made the opportunity to get back the rights over the property more rigid. Therefore, many criticisms have been made regarding the future of the Act. The contents of the Native Title Act are quite uncertain an d therefore, the future of the land right movement of the indigenous has become uncertain. The Australian government has failed to ensure fair native title system and provide social justice to aboriginals. There is a condition imposed on the future acts of the Native Title Act and it has been stated that the acts should affect the freehold land only. On the other hand, the mentality of the government to the aboriginals is not at all trustworthy (Rembar 2015). The Native Title Act has generated certain negotiation process to resolve the land dispute but in reality, government has changed the criteria of the suit as per their own interest. Therefore the aboriginals have to wait for long to get their right on property. The people of Miriuwung had to wait for ten years to get their title over the lands. However, there are certain positive impacts created by the Act on the aboriginal. It has been observed in Griffiths v Northern Territory of Australia  that the aboriginals of Nunga li, whose lands were taken from them, being compensated by the government. Therefore, it can state that the future of the Native Title Act 1993 is uncertain in nature. Conclusion: To sum up, it can be stated that the Mabo case has deeply rooted in the Australian Justice system due to its remarkable nature and the aftermath effect of the case is the introduction of the Native Title Act. Main objective of this Act is to secure the interest of the aboriginals on their property. However, there are certain loopholes present under this Act and make the process of getting property slower. It has been observed that the government is also incorporated with the aboriginals and therefore, the Act has failed to achieve its main objective and the character of the Act has become uncertain. Reference: Boer, B. and Gruber, S., 2017. Legal Frameworks for World Heritage and Human Rights in Australia. Cleary, P., 2014. Native title contestation in Western Australia's Pilbara region.International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy,3(3), pp.132-148. Drake, K. and Gaudry, A.J.P., 2016. 'The Lands Belonged to Them, Once by Indian Title, Twice for Having Defended Them, and Thrice for Having Built and Lived on Them': The Law and Politics of Mtis Title. Flynn, L., 2017. Native title: Full court upholds most findings in timber creek native title compensation case.LSJ: business-law Society of NSW Journal, (37), p.71. Gruber, B.B.S., 2017. LEGAL FRAMEWORKS FOR WORLD HERITAGE AND HUMAN RIGHTS IN AUSTRALIA.World Heritage and Human Rights: Lessons from the Asia-Pacific and global arena. Kramer, J., 2016. (Re) mapping Terra Nullius: Hindmarsh, Wik and Native Title Legislation in Australia.International Journal for the Semiotics of Law-Revue internationale de Smiotique juridique,29(1), pp.191-212. Mannan, K.A., 2015. Controversial issues of Aboriginals in Australia: An Analysis of Regulatory Perspectives. Rembar, C., 2015.The law of the land: The evolution of our legal system. Project-management. Rossiter, D.A. and Wood, P.B., 2016. Neoliberalism as Shape-Shifter: The Case of Aboriginal Title and the Northern Gateway Pipeline.Society Natural Resources,29(8), pp.900-915. Short, D., 2016.Reconciliation and colonial power: Indigenous rights in Australia. Routledge. Yiftachel, O., 2017. Terra nullius and planning.The Routledge Companion to Planning in the Global South, p.243.
Friday, April 10, 2020
A Position Paper on Immigration Immigration is a topic that is discussed in coffeehouses, at the break room water fountain, in the boardrooms, and at the highest level of government. Why, we ask is this, such a widely discussed topic? I believe the answer will vary from person to person. I believe the primary reason is centered on cost. There are those who argue, that the cost of supporting immigrants, is burdening our state budget. The cost of supporting their health care needs, public schooling, and public assistance needs, far out weigh the benefit of there being here. Then there are those who point to Ellis Island and a statue, at the base of that statue is inscribed, "Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free". They believe that America was founded on the sweat and toil of immigrants.The Alien Payoff, a reading by Paul Glastris, touches on all of the controversial arguments that have been highlighted in all of the places mentioned in my first sentence.Dormitory room in Ellis I slandGlastris starts the reading by depicting the life of Francisco Castro, a Mexican immigrant. Castro works in the Los Angeles Produce Market, eleven hours a day, six days a week. I believe that Glastris selected Castro because he may represent our perception of a Mexican immigrant. That image is "laborer", physical toil, long hours doing what a native-born worker would not. I agree with Glastris' assessment of cheap labor translating to lower food cost to consumers. Glastris highlights a landmark report by the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, this report concludes, the actual effect of immigrations' impact on our economy is "not that great", "The cost to native-born workers are small, and so are the benefits," (Richard Freeman - Economist, Harvard University). The report acknowledges the substantial cost...
Monday, March 9, 2020
How I Established My Romance Novels Subgenres How I Established My Romance Novel's Subgenres Barbara James lives in New York, and is an avid romance reader and a former academic writer. In this article, she breaks down her latest romance novel's subgenres - sweet, contemporary, new adult - and explains the characteristics and importance of each one. How my novel is Ã¢â¬Å"new adultÃ¢â¬ New adult is for readers who have graduated from the young adult category, but who face different conflicts and questions than the rest of the 30+ adult group. They are still in the early stages of their lives, grappling with identity, relationships, and career.In Starting Over, Annelise is more conservative than most of her peers: she hopes to be married by the time she graduates university, and to become a stay-at-home mom by the time sheÃ¢â¬â¢s in her mid-twenties. This is a more Ã¢â¬Å"old-fashionedÃ¢â¬ life plan than many people in their early-twenties have today, so Annelise struggles with how to fit in with her peers, and is constantly questioning her life plans and decisions.When my novel was finished and I was ready to start working with a professional editor, I knew I wanted someone who was a clear fan of the romance genre.Working with a development editor who also loves romance novelsA developmental editor can be instrumental in either helping you define your genre or tailoring your novel more to your chosen genre. And this was absolutely the case with my editor, Mary-Theresa Hussey. She worked for over 25 years as an executive editor at Harlequin, so she really knew her stuff. A developmental editor can be instrumental in helping you define your novel's genre. One way she challenged me fairly early on was with respect to age differences. Annelise could have been older, a graduate student, about 22Ã¢â¬â24 years old or Rick could have been younger, 24Ã¢â¬â25 years old. Ultimately, I made Rick ten years old, 28 to AnneliseÃ¢â¬â¢s 18, because I wanted him to be ready to handle the responsibility of being the husband of a younger, stay-at-home-wife. But Mary-TheresaÃ¢â¬â¢s suggestion that I re-think their age difference helped me more firmly establish why the ten-year age gap was important to the story, strengthening each character in my mind.As her work history clearly suggests, Mary-Theresa is a fan of romance novels herself. Working with an editor who has a preference from romance novels was as important to me as their professional backgrounds, which is why I was so happy Reedsy permitted me to search for editors with specific keywords.Starting Over is available in paperback and on Amazon Kindle.Please share your thoughts, experien ces, or any questions for Barbara James in the comments below!
Saturday, February 22, 2020
Covenant of the Old Testament - Research Paper Example Meaning of Covenant Covenant is considered as an agreement taking place between two people as a method to relate with the God. The term Ã¢â¬ËcovenantÃ¢â¬â¢ has been derived from Hebrew roots which refers the action Ã¢â¬Ëto cutÃ¢â¬â¢. With concern to the meaning of covenant as specified in the Holy BibleÃ¢â¬â¢s Old Testament, it has often been categorised as the most significant term defining the relationship between God and His people. In a Biblical sense, a covenant means much more than a contract or a mere concurrence taking place between two parties. The term Ã¢â¬ËcovenantÃ¢â¬â¢, in the Old Testament, offers an additional insight to the meaning of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s expectation from humans. The act of covenant, in particular tends to demonstrate the tradition, where two people with agreement attempted to pass through the cut bodies of assassinated animals as a method to get closer to the divine soul. However, other acts of covenant were learnt to have possibly taken place in terms of circumcision and also by sprinkling animal blood on the people engaged in the agreement. Such a ceremony escorted the making of the agreement in the Old Testament. ... However, it has been noted that He approves of entering into an agreement with the man who tends to be weak, sinful as well as flawed in order to direct them in the path of wisdom and peace (Schulten, Ã¢â¬Å"Legal Models For The Old Testament Covenants: An Issue of Contract or Real Property LawÃ¢â¬ ). While entering into relationship with man, God was found to possess unilateral freedom. Therefore, He began, defined as well as confirmed each of the agreement not depending upon the human merits but completely according to His own elegance as well as clemency. Consequentially, the role of human beings has been to act as a recipient rather than acting as a contributor. People did not bargain, barter or dared to contradict with God. However, it was found that man beheld his power to decide upon whether to keep with the promises made to the God or to reject them; to obey Him or to transgress. Hence, stating precisely, God was completely accountable to look after covenantal security. The role of man was thus restricted to believe and obey (Weinfeld, Ã¢â¬Å"The Covenant of Grant in the Old Testament and in the Ancient Near EastÃ¢â¬ ). There are nearly six covenants in the Old Testament. The Covenant with Adam It is worth mentioning that the first covenant enacted in the Garden of Eden was in agreement with Adam and Eve where the Holy Spirit explicitly directed them stating, Ã¢â¬Å"You must not eat from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, for when you eat it, you will surely dieÃ¢â¬ . According to the description given in the Old Testament, Eve was the first sinner as she had contradicted the order of the Holy Spirit. Consequentially, when Adam followed the same path making a sin,